A TIMELINE OF W.VA.'S CREATION
Here is a timeline of the formation of the state of West Virginia, the 35th state in the union, according to the West Virginia Sesquicentennial website:
Nov. 6: Abraham Lincoln elected as the 16th president with 39.8 percent of the popular vote.
Dec. 20: A South Carolina Convention voted 169-0 to dissolve the state's ties with the United States.
Jan. 7: Virginia's Gov. John Letcher called a special session of the Virginia General Assembly to consider secession.
Jan. 14: The General Assembly called a state convention to be held in February for Virginians to vote on the issue of secession.
Feb. 13: Virginia Secession Convention convenes.
April 12: Confederate troops fired on Union-held Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, S.C., beginning the Civil War.
April 17: The Virginia State Convention voted to secede and approved a secession referendum for May 23. Western delegates fled home, as they believed their lives were in danger.
The First Wheeling Convention
May 13-15: Four-hundred thirty-six elected delegates from 17 Virginia counties met in Wheeling at Washington Hall. Several delegates had attended the General Assembly at Richmond.
John S. Carlile of Harrison County insisted that the convention had the authority to take action on separation. Delegates formed a Committee on Credentials and a Committee on State and Federal Relations.
Calling for the state of "New Virginia," Carlile argued that Virginia must consent to the separation before it seceded from the Union. He felt that this was the only way to comply with Section Three of Article Four of the U.S. Constitution, which outlines the procedure by which one state is created from another.
The Committee on State and Federal Relations recommended that a new state not be formed at this time and advised waiting for the results of the May 23 referendum.
The State Referendum on Secession
May 23: An overwhelming majority of Virginians voted for secession, but the majority of those in the northwestern counties voted against it.
The Second Wheeling Convention
June 11: One hundred and five delegates from 38 counties attended.
June 12: Delegates selected Arthur I. Boreman as convention president.
June 13: The convention moved to the U.S. Custom House. For the committee on Business, Carlile presented "A Declaration of the Rights of the People of Virginia," declaring the Richmond government illegal.
June 19: Delegates created the Restored Government of Virginia and adopted the "Declaration of Rights of the People of Virginia."
June 20: Convention delegates signed the "Declaration of Rights of the People of Virginia" and elected Francis H. Pierpont governor of the Restored Government of Virginia.
July 1: The General Assembly of the Restored Government of Virginia convened at the U.S. Custom House.
Aug. 20-21: The Committee of the Division of the State proposed a 39-county state known as "Kanawha." The convention adjourned Aug. 21.
Oct. 24: Thirty-eight percent of voters in affected counties ratified an ordinance for the formation of the new state and selected delegates for the constitutional convention.
The First Constitutional Convention, Wheeling
Nov. 26: At the U.S. Custom House, the first constitutional convention assembled with 61 delegates present.
Dec. 3: The name "Kanawha" was withdrawn from consideration and "West Virginia" was chosen as the name for the new state.
Feb. 18: Delegates unanimously approved the new constitution for West Virginia.
April 4: Voters ratified the constitution.
May 6: Gov. Pierpont convened the General Assembly of the Restored Government of Virginia.
May 13: The assembly approved the creation of West Virginia with 48 counties.
May 29: Sen. Waitman T. Willey submitted the application by West Virginia for admission to the Union to the U.S. Senate. Sen. John S. Carlile drafted the Senate bill but waited until the end of the congressional session to submit it. His bill called for the addition of 15 counties, which supported the confederacy, a new constitutional convention to approve this revision, and the emancipation of slave children born after 1863.
June 26: Abolitionist Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts tried but failed to amend Carlile's bill with a motion for emancipation of all slaves on July 4, 1863.
July 1: Willey proposed an amendment to the statehood bill providing for the gradual emancipation of slaves.
July 14: The amended statehood bill passed the U.S. Senate by a vote of 23 to 17.
Dec. 21: President Lincoln received the bill and asked his cabinet for advice. Half the cabinet favored the admission of West Virginia, and half opposed it.
Dec. 31: President Lincoln signed the bill with these remarks: "The division of the State is dreaded as a precedent. But a measure made expedient by war is no precedent for times of peace. It is said that the admission of West Virginia is secession and tolerated only because it is our secession. Well, if we call it by that name there is still difference enough between secession against the Constitution and secession in favor of the Constitution. I believe the admission of West Virginia into the Union is expedient."
Feb. 12: The West Virginia Constitutional Convention reconvened.
Feb. 18: The convention unanimously adopted the Willey Amendment.
March 26: Voters approved the constitution with the emancipation amendment.
April 20: President Lincoln announced that the act of Congress admitting West Virginia into the Union would take effect in 60 days.
May 28: Voters of the new state elect Arthur I. Boreman from Parkersburg as West Virginia's first governor.
June 20: West Virginia became America's 35th state.
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